e-Navigation Frequently Asked Questions

Note: These FAQ’s are maintained up-to-date by the IALA e-Navigation Committee at its biannual meetings usually held during March and September. e-Navigation is a rapidly evolving IMO concept and IALA takes all reasonable efforts to reflect the most current IMO decisions in these FAQ’s.


1 WHAT IS e-NAVIGATION?

e-Navigation is an International Maritime Organization (IMO) led concept based on the harmonisation of marine navigation systems and supporting shore services driven by user needs.

e-Navigation is currently defined as:

‘e-Navigation is the harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment’

It should be noted that the term e-navigation is often used in a generic sense by equipment and service providers.  This claim should be seen as an aspiration, rather than an indication of compliance.

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2 WHAT WILL e-NAVIGATION DELIVER?

It is envisioned there will be at least three broad significant outcomes from e-Navigation that are currently being used as the basis of establishing user needs. These are represented by ship based systems, shore based systems and a communications infrastructure as outlined here:

  1. Onboard navigation systems will be developed that benefit from the integration of own ship sensors, supporting information, a standard user interface, and a comprehensive system for managing guard zones and alerts. Core elements of such a system will include high integrity electronic positioning, Electronic Navigational Charts (ENC) and an analysis capability to reduce human error, actively engaging the mariner in the process of navigation while preventing distraction and overburdening.
  2. The management of vessel traffic and related services from ashore will be enhanced through better provision, co-ordination and exchange of comprehensive data in formats that will be more easily understood and utilised by shore-based operators in support of vessel safety and efficiency.
  3. An infrastructure designed to enable authorised seamless information transfer onboard ship, between ships, between ship and shore and between shore authorities and other parties with many attendant benefits.

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3 WHAT DOES THE ‘e’ IN e-NAVIGATION STAND FOR?

It is generally accepted that the IMO concept of ‘e-Navigation’ can be thought of as a brand, without the need for ‘e’ to be specifically defined.

The concept of e-Navigation was proposed by IMO Member States in 2006 as a process for the harmonisation, collection, integration, exchange and presentation of maritime information. As such, the ‘e’ could have stood for ‘enhanced’ or ‘electronic’, but this would unnecessarily limit what can be done within e-Navigation. It must be noted that generic electronic marine navigation already exists in many forms and should not be confused with this specific IMO initiative.

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4 WHAT ARE THE CORE OBJECTIVES OF e-NAVIGATION?

The IMO has agreed that the core objectives of an e-Navigation concept should:

    • facilitate safe and secure navigation of vessels having regard to hydrographic meteorological and navigational information and risks;
    • facilitate vessel traffic observation and management from shore/coastal facilities, where appropriate;
    • facilitate communications, including data exchange, among ship to ship, ship to shore, shore to ship, shore to shore and other users;
    • provide opportunities for improving the efficiency of transport and logistics;
    • support the effective operation of contingency response, and search and rescue services;
    • demonstrate defined levels of accuracy, integrity and continuity appropriate to a safety-critical system;
    • integrate and present information onboard and ashore through a human interface which maximises navigational safety benefits and minimises any risks of confusion or misinterpretation on the part of the user;
    • integrate and present information onboard and ashore to manage the workload of the users, while also motivating and engaging the user and supporting decision-making;
    • incorporate training and familiarisation requirements for the users throughout the development and implementation process;
    • facilitate global coverage, consistent standards and arrangements, and mutual compatibility and interoperability of equipment, systems, symbology and operational procedures, so as to avoid potential conflicts between users; and
    • be scalable, to facilitate use by all potential maritime users.

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5 WHAT IS THE COMPELLING NEED FOR e-NAVIGATION?

There is a clear and compelling need to equip the master of a vessel and those ashore responsible for the safety of shipping with modern, proven tools to make maritime navigation and communications more reliable and user friendly and thereby reducing errors.  However, if current technological advances continue without proper coordination there is a risk that the future development of marine navigation systems will be hampered through a lack of standardisation onboard and ashore, incompatibility between vessels and an increased and unnecessary level of complexity.

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6 WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF e-NAVIGATION?

According to the IMO Strategy, the main broad benefits of e-navigation are expected to be:

  • improved safety, through promotion of standards in safe navigation supported by:
    • improved decision support enabling the mariner and competent authorities ashore to select relevant unambiguous information pertinent to the prevailing circumstances;
    • a reduction in human error through provision of automatic indicators, warnings and fail-safe methods;
    • improved coverage and availability of consistent quality Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs);
    • introduction of standardised equipment with an S-Mode* option but without restricting the ability of manufacturers to innovate;
    • enhanced navigation system resilience, leading to improved reliability and integrity; and
    • better integration of ship and shore-based systems; leading to better utilisation of all human resources;
  • better protection of the environment both by:
    • improving navigation safety as above, thereby reducing the risk of collisions and groundings and the associated spillages and pollution;
    • reducing emissions by using optimum routes and speeds; and
    • enhancement of ability and capacity in responding and handling of emergencies such as oil spills;
  • augmented security by enabling silent operation mode for shore-based stakeholders for domain surveillance and monitoring;
  • higher efficiency and reduced costs enabled by:
    • global standardisation and type approval of equipment augmented by a ‘fast track’ change management process (in relation to technical standards for equipment);
    • automated and standardised reporting procedures, leading to reduced administrative overhead;
    • improved bridge efficiency allowing watch keepers to maximise time to keeping a proper lookout and embrace existing good practice, e.g., using more than one method to ascertain the ship's position; and
    • integration of systems that are already in place, precipitating the efficient and coherent use of new equipment that meets all user requirements;
  • improved human resource management by enhancing the experience and status of the bridge team.

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7 WHAT ARE THE USER NEEDS?

e-Navigation, as agreed by the IMO, is a ‘user led’ initiative, and the users include those who navigate vessels of all sizes and types, and a broad section of shore based authorised users.  At the IMO Safety of Navigation Sub-committee (NAV55) during July 09, it was agreed that the preliminary shipboard needs included:

  • improved ergonomics;
  • greater standardisation of interfaces;
  • better familiarisation training;
  • more effective display of NAVTEX and other MSI;
  • alert/alarm management;
  • improved reliability and better indication of reliability;
  • more standardised and automated reporting facilities;
  • improved target detection;
  • more effective guard zones;
  • reduction of administrative burden; and
  • more automated updating of essential information.

Shores based needs are currently being developed with the assistance of IALA and are anticipated to fall into the categories of:

  • better data collection for marine domain awareness;
  • more effective information management;
  • better provision of information to vessels;
  • greater quality assurance;
  • more effective sharing of information between authorised shore users to reduce the burden on seafarers and improve logistic management; and
  • to support Search and Rescue (SAR) operations by improving access to relevant information and ensuring effective communication.

It is understood that improvements in all these areas will not solely rely on technology, but will require attention to training and procedures as well. 

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8 WHAT EXISTING ISSUES AND TRENDS IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRY LED TO THE CALL FOR e-NAVIGATION?

  • there is an increasing demand by coastal states to seek more information from vessels transiting waters under their jurisdiction, adjacent waters and beyond, to manage the risks they pose and to have a positive means of communicating with them;
  • there is an increasing tendency by port and coastal states to implement more rules/requirements for vessels arriving in and/or transiting waters within their jurisdiction;
  • there is an increasing tendency between coastal states for regional co-operation;
  • the volume of information being exchanged among ships and shore organisations is increasing;
  • environmental concerns and future regulatory requirements are expected to continue to acquire ever-higher importance;
  • security concerns are continuing to have an impact on maritime and other modes of transport;
  • diversification of port services (e.g. pilotage, linesmen, tugs, etc.) will increase and therefore coordination of allied services will become increasingly important;
  • competency of marine personnel will continue to vary and skill fade for infrequently used skills is an acknowledged factor;
  • the use of new technology may necessitate changed training requirements and operational procedures;
  • the use of formalised and increasingly precise systems to manage traffic at sea and in ports will grow;
  • although additional Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) services (e.g. Galileo) will become available and robustness will increase, such space-based systems will also be vulnerable to jamming and unintentional interference;
  • ship design and technology will continue to evolve;
  • there will be increasing demands for rapid and predictable transportation and cargo handling schedules;
  • the attractiveness of inland waterways as a means of transportation will increase;
  • the competition for the use of navigable waters (high seas, coastal and inland) will continue to increase (e.g. High Speed Craft, larger and faster commercial ships, recreational vessels, offshore structures and renewable energy systems).
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9 WHO WILL e-NAVIGATION IMPACT?

e-Navigation is a broad, long-term concept, involving many stakeholders and having the potential to impact on the entire maritime community.  However amongst those likely to be affected are mariners, marine pilots, equipment manufacturers, Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), RCCs, Coastal States, Port States and Flag States, Hydrographic Offices, ship owners, ship operators and ship charterers.  Further, the development of e-Navigation will have a significant impact on all facets of training and the modification of operating procedures.

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10 DOES e-NAVIGATION PERTAIN ONLY TO SOLAS VESSELS AND EQUIPMENT?

No, IMO intends that e-Navigation be ‘scalable’ and could benefit all vessels.

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11 WHEN WILL E-NAVIGATION HAPPEN?

e-Navigation is an evolutionary and dynamic concept that will continue to develop as new user needs arise and emerging technological opportunities become available.  In December 2008 the IMO Maritime Safety Committee adopted an e-Navigation ‘Strategy’.  This plan calls for a ‘Strategy Implementation Plan’ comprising user needs; architecture; and making use of Gap, Cost Benefit and Risk Analysis, to be developed, with the current deadline being set for 2014.  This implementation plan may set timetables for the initial phases of
e-Navigation implementation.  It is expected that the strategy will embody a framework for continuously assessing how best to meet user needs with evolving technology and the use of cost benefit analysis.

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12 WILL e-NAVIGATION HELP PROTECT THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT?

Yes. e-Navigation will bring improvements to navigation safety through the reduction of risk, and so help protect the marine environment from shipborne pollution stemming from collisions and groundings.

Further work and analysis is being carried out to determine if e-navigation may have uses to help reduce carbon, sulphur and nitrogen emissions from ships through more efficient vessel routeing and handling, and how e-navigation could be used as an audit tool for the measurement of emissions offset claims and credits trading.

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13 I HAVE A FULLY APPROVED AND COMPLIANT ECDIS ON MY SHIP – DOES THIS MEAN I ALREADY HAVE e-NAVIGATION?

No. However, Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) is anticipated to form an important enabler for e-Navigation.

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14 HOW DOES CURRENT WORK OF THE IMO ON ECDIS, INS/IBS AND THE IALA WORK ON VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICES FIT WITH e-NAVIGATION?

The systems and technologies that are being developed and used within ECDIS, Integrated Navigation Systems (INS), Integrated Bridge Systems (IBS) and VTS developments will form key elements of the over-arching strategy for e-Navigation in order to harmonise the collection, integration, exchange and presentation of maritime information onboard and ashore.

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15 ARE THERE TRAINING IMPLICATIONS FOR e-NAVIGATION?

Yes.  e-Navigation will involve the use of technology hand-in-hand with appropriate procedures, and as such there will need to be significant changes to training that is given to all users, ashore and afloat.

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16 HOW WILL e-NAVIGATION AFFECT SMALL COMMERCIAL AND RECREATION VESSELS?

There will be implications for small commercial and recreational craft since e-Navigation is intended to be scalable across all vessels in order to improve safety for the entire maritime community.  Benefits for smaller vessels are expected to include improved navigational capability and vessel detection by all.

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17 HOW WILL e-NAVIGATION CHANGE TRADITIONAL NAVIGATION?

The vision for e-Navigation is to enhance the best practices of traditional navigation, by better integrating humans and machines to take advantage of both their unique skills.  Electronics have proven excellent at continually monitoring and checking mundane routines such as comparing various sources of navigation inputs, a task that most mariners can’t accomplish as quickly and eventually find tedious.  Humans excel in intuitive skills and addressing abstract challenges such as ship handling and resource management.  The enhancements brought in by e-Navigation are to optimise the support technical systems give to the human decision making process for the safe operation of shipping.

With the advent of electronic navigation (not to be confused with e-Navigation), such as electronic charts and positioning systems, the role of the mariner has changed without the change being holistically addressed by the maritime community.  These conditions also exist with shore-side operations.  e-Navigation is a process that seeks to reassess these roles and ensure that mariners and shore operators are actively engaged in the process of navigation and not just monitoring it.  This will enable mariners and operators ashore to make better decisions, supported by robust electronic technology and information management systems that reduce existing distractions. 

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18 WILL e-NAVIGATION IMPACT ON THE PROVISION OF TRADITIONAL AIDS TO NAVIGATION?

As per the SOLAS 74 Convention (Chapter V, Regulation 13), Contracting Governments undertake to provide aids to navigation in accordance with the volume of traffic and degree of risk.

Aids to navigation authorities should continue to take the above into account, along with the requirements of e-Navigation, when they evaluate the provision of the overall aids to navigation service.

e-Navigation is a harmonised concept, which will take into account both traditional and modern aids to navigation, aimed at improving the safety of navigation.

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19 DOES e-NAVIGATION IMPLY A REDEFINITION OF AUTHORITY ONBOARD A SHIP AT SEA?

No.  e-Navigation will not change the responsibilities of the persons onboard the vessel with regard to the safe navigation of the vessel.

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20 WHAT ARE SOME OF THE EXPECTED CONSEQUENCES OF e-NAVIGATION? 

The following are possible consequences of e-Navigation:

1           There will be a continuing need for more efficient and harmonised data transfer between ships, and between ships and shore.

2           There will be a need for improved communication facilities between shore and ship to exchange information such as polling and a positive means to offer warnings, advice and directions to ships.

3           There will be a need to automate or poll ships for the provision of information without the need for human intervention.

4           Advances in technology will make possible the detection, identification, and precise tracking of vessels outside existing VTS areas.  These will include Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) as well as terrestrial and satellite-based reception of AIS signals.

5           Comprehensive and effective risk assessment using e-Navigation will increasingly become the basis for the safe management of navigation.

6           There will be greater management and organisation of vessel traffic within the limits of liability.

7           There will be an increased need to assure and certify the competency of mariners and shore-side users so as to make best use of e-Navigation facilities.

8           In areas of high density or co-existing commercial and recreational traffic, there may be an application within e-Navigation to better manage recreational and small craft to ensure the safety of navigation for all.

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21 WILL e-NAVIGATION BECOME A ‘SERVICE’?

No.  But it will include a framework of technical and operational services that will aim to harmonise and provide capabilities to enhance the exchange and sharing of navigational information within the maritime domain.

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22 WHAT DOES THE e-NAVIGATION ARCHITECTURE DO?

The architecture forms a framework and will assist in the development of e-Navigation applications, while promoting international harmonisation and standardisation.

Supporting quotes from IMO MSC 85 Report, Annex 21:

No-5: ‘The architecture should include the hardware, data, information, communications technology and software needed to meet the user needs.  The system architecture should be based on a modular and scaleable concept.  The system hardware and software should be based on open architectures to allow scalability of functions according to the needs of different users and to cater to continued development and enhancement.’

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23 WHAT ELEMENTS ARE INCLUDED IN e-NAVIGATION ARCHITECTURE?

The architecture includes models for the hardware, data, information, and communications technology and software needed to meet the user needs.

IMO has defined an overarching architecture for e-Navigation as given in the following Figure.  IALA focuses its attention on the shore sideof the overarching e-Navigation architecture, including the Maritime Service Portfolios (MSPs), in accordance with the mandate of IALA.  This is illustrated by the highlighted area on the shore side in Figure 1 (source: IMO NAV57/15, paragraphs 6.31ff, explicitly referencing NAV57-WP.6, paragraphs on the overarching e-Navigation architecture and in particular Figure 1).

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24 IS THERE A SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION OF THE OVERARCHING e-NAVIGATION ARCHITECTURE?

Yes.  The relevant elements of the IMO defined e-Navigation architecture can be re-arranged in the image of the ‘Seven pillars of e-Navigation’ (or ‘e-Navigation Platform suite’).  This is shown in Figure 2.

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25 TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE IALA ARCHITECTURE WORK CONTRIBUTE TO THE IMO e-NAVIGATION STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN?

IALA is leading the architecture work for e-navigation for shore systems and ship-shore/shore-ship services by publishing manuals, guidelines, and recommendations. That is part of the existing mandate of IALA.  The recommendations provide the necessary framework for e-Navigation from the shore side

Additionally, at the request of IMO, IALA is supporting IMO in the development and implementation of e-navigation by offering architecture proposals for coordinated review by IMO.

IALA is also contributing to the Common Maritime Data Structure (CMDS), as based on the IHO S-100 standard that has been designed to model data object related aspects of e-Navigation.

Supporting quotes from IMO MSC 85 Report, Annex 21:

5: ‘The architecture should include the hardware, data, information, communications technology and software needed to meet the user needs.  The system architecture should be based on a modular and scalable concept.  The system hardware and software should be based on open architectures to allow scalability of functions according to the needs of different users and to cater to continued development and enhancement’.

Compare also Annex 20: 8.2.1, 9.1.1, 9.1.5, and 9.7.2.1.

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26 CAN THE COMMON MARITIME DATA STRUCTURE (CMDS) CONCEPT BE APPLIED TO SHIP, SHORE AND THE COMMUNICATION LINKS IN BETWEEN?

Yes.  That is its purpose.  IMO has stated that e-navigation will be a single integrated concept with an internationally agreed common data structure.  The CMDS does not impose restrictions on encoding or implementation.  Rather, the data model is an abstract framework that defines the semantics of the data.  Different encoding and implementation techniques in different technical and operational contexts are possible with no changes to the data model.  IMO has established a dedicated group, the IMO/IHO Harmonisation Group on Data Modelling (HGDM) that is expected, once inaugurated, to co-ordinate international work on the CMDS.

Supporting quotes from IMO MSC 85 Report, Annex 20:

8.2.1: ‘Mariners require information pertaining to the planning and execution of voyages, the assessment of navigation risk and compliance with regulation.  This information should be accessible from a single integrated system.  Shore users require information pertaining to their maritime domain, including static and dynamic information on vessels and their voyages.  This information should be provided in an internationally agreed common data structure.  Such a data structure is essential for the sharing of information amongst shore authorities on a regional and international basis’.

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27 WHERE CAN I BUY AN ‘e-NAVIGATION SYSTEM’?

There is no such thing as an ‘e-Navigation system’.  The e-Navigation concept is broad in scope and will have many users both ship-board and ashore and many components.  No users will use all possible components defined by the complete e-Navigation concept.  Individual users will use components appropriate to their activities.  

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28 WHAT MAKES A SYSTEM ‘e-NAVIGATION COMPLIANT’?

While there is presently no direct definition of ‘e-Navigation compliancy’ or of an ‘e-Navigation compliant’ operational or technical service or device provided by IMO, the working and therefore tentative definition can be inferred from the IMO e-Navigation strategy.  ‘e-Navigation compliant’ would mean that an operational or technical service or device has been proven, tested, or checked by a competent body to be in conformity with relevant IMO performance standards, which were explicitly created or revised as part of the implementation of IMO’s e-Navigation strategy.

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29 WHERE CAN I BUY CERTIFIED ‘e-NAVIGATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS’?

You cannot buy certified components until IMO has adapted their existing performance standards to the e-Navigation paradigm and has written performance standards for new services or components.  Likewise, other recognized international bodies need to adapt their existing recommendations and standards to the e-Navigation paradigm and write new recommendations and standards as appropriate for new services or components.

Supporting quotes from IMO MSC 85 Report, Annex 20:

9.1.3: ‘The provision and development of e-navigation should consider relevant international conventions, regulations and guidelines, national legislation and standards.  The development and implementation of e-navigation should build upon the work of IMO.’

9.1.7 ‘This part of the work will follow the development of performance standards and will involve users and manufacturers’.

9.9.3 ‘Implementation itself, in phases, perhaps based on a voluntary equipage of (integrated) existing systems to begin with, but with mandatory equipage and use of a full e-navigation solution in the longer term.’

Annex 1.5 ‘taking the lead in setting the performance standards appropriate for e-Navigation covering all the dimensions of the system: shipborne, ashore and communications. These standards should be based on user needs and should encourage technology neutrality and interoperability of system components’.

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30 WILL THE CURRENT TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AN IALA MEMBER BECOME OBSOLETE WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF THE COMMON SHORE-BASED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE?

No.  The current technical environment will still be relevant as IALA members move towards a Common Shore-based System Architecture (CSSA).  However, in the usual course of upgrading, recapitalisation, changing user requirements and new regulations, the IALA member will eventually be ‘e-Navigation compliant’.  IMO has stated that e-navigation implementation will take place in phases.  The first phase will be most likely to integrate existing technology and systems.  It is possible that in this phase some new services, systems, and/or technologies will also be introduced.  It should be noted that IMO has also stated that ‘e-navigation compliance’ is eventually expected.

Supporting quotes from IMO MSC 85 Report, Annex 20:

9.9.1 ‘transition planning, taking into account the phasing needed to deliver early benefits and to make the optimum use of existing systems and services in the short term.  The implementation plan should be phased such that the first phase can be achieved by fully integrating and standardizing existing technology and systems (the reduced architecture identified during the gap analysis) and using a reduced concept of operations.  Subsequent phases should develop and implement any new technology that is required to deliver the preferred architecture and implement the overall concept of operations;’

9.1.5 ‘Communications technology and information systems will have to be identified to meet user needs.  This work may involve the enhancement of existing systems or the development of new systems.  Any impacts affecting existing systems will need to be identified and addressed, based on technical standards and protocols for data structure, technology, and bandwidth and frequency allocations.’

9.9.3 ‘implementation itself, in phases, perhaps based on a voluntary equipage of (integrated) existing systems to begin with, but with mandatory equipage and use of a full e-navigation solution in the longer term.’

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31 WILL THE TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AN IALA MEMBER NEED TO MIGRATE TO THE COMMON SHORE-BASED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE?

There may be incentives in the future for shore authorities to migrate towards the Common Shore-based System Architecture, in order to support the IMO intended ‘mandatory equipage’ and ‘defined service levels’ (compare Annex 20, 5.1.6 and 9.9.3). Although the full impact is not known yet, the IMO Member State Audit Scheme, which is mandatory by the 1st January 2015, may have an impact on the migration towards an ‘e-Navigation compliant’ shore-based infrastructure.

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32 WILL AN IALA MEMBER WHO AT PRESENT DOES NOT HAVE AN ADEQUATE TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENT NEED TO SETUP THE COMMON SHORE-BASED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE?

Should an IALA member intend to set up a shore-based system this IALA member may consider a system adhering to the Common Shore-based System Architecture.

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33 HOW DOES AN IALA MEMBER PREPARE FOR e-NAVIGATION?

Participate in the e-navigation work being done at IALA and elsewhere.  IMO’s e-Navigation Strategy Implementation Plan (SIP) is presently being developed and is expected to be ready in 2014.  Based on that plan it is most likely that several concurrent initiatives regarding the above architectural elements will be launched, thus affecting IALA, amongst other bodies.

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34 DOES AN IALA MEMBER NEED TO DO ANYTHING TODAY?

Yes.  There are several things that an IALA member may wish to start doing today:

  • become familiar with the existing and emerging documentation and literature regarding e-navigation;
  • prepare a national e-navigation plan based on the international descriptions and the internationally defined framework for e-navigation;
  • participate in the e-navigation work being done at IALA and elsewhere. 

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35 WHO WILL DO THE LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF THE COMMON SHORE-BASED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AFTER IT IS DEVELOPED?

IALA will maintain what it has developed; hence IALA will maintain and further develop its own documentation regarding the Common Shore-based System Architecture.

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36 ARE THERE ANY e-NAVIGATION TEST BEDS?

Yes. Various administrations and organisations are conducting test beds and providing services under the generic banner of e-navigation. Some of these examples can be found at www.e-navigation.net.  However, it must be emphasised that in the current development of the IMO-led concept of e-navigation, no official status has been given to the results of these test beds by the IMO.

Guidelines for the harmonisation of test beds are currently in the process of being developed by IMO. 

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37 WHERE CAN I FIND MORE INFORMATION ON e-NAVIGATION ?

IMO, IALA, IHO and other websites have information documents.  Additionally, Norway, which chairs the IMO Correspondence Group on e-navigation, has a website (www.e-nav.no).