IALA

Weather observation report from ship

Introduction/Additional information:

This message provides weather information observed on a ship in navigation.

Two different messages can be transmitted:
.1 Weather observation report from ship; or
.2 WMO Weather observation report from ship.

Table 10.1 outlines the parameters associated with the Weather observation report from ship message.

Table 10.2 outlines the parameters associated with the WMO Weather observation report from ship message.

The WMO Weather observation report from ship message is intended for ships which have been recruited by national meteorological services to undertake weather observations at sea in accordance with the provisions of SOLAS chapter V, regulation 5, and the World Meteorological Organization’s Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) Scheme. Because national meteorological services are the intended primary users of this message it has been developed to reflect the coding principles prescribed by WMO in its Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data (BUFR), and as contained in Part B of WMO Publication No.306, (Manual Codes, Volume I.2). The parameters coded in this message are therefore not fully compatible with the recommendations set out in ITU M.1371-3.

10.4.2 The WMO Weather observation report from ship message includes all the parameters that are typically reported by voluntary observing ships, as well as additional parameters reported by ships that are recruited to the VOS Scheme to report climate quality weather observations (indicated as VOSClim parameters in the message description). The message format also accords with formats being developed for use in connection with shipboard automatic weather stations

Parameter No of bits Description
Message ID 6 Identifier for Message 8; always 8.
Repeat Indicator 2

 

Used by the repeater to indicate how many times a message has been repeated.

0 – 3

0 = default

3 = do not repeat anymore

Source ID 30 MMSI number of source station
Spare 2 Not used. Set to zero.
IAI 16 DAC = 001; FI =21
Type of weather report 1 always 1
Position of Observation, Longitude 16

 

BUFR  006002

Longitude in 1/100 min, ±180 degrees (East = positive, West = negative)

Lon = (Integer value / 100) – 180 for Integer = 0 – 36,000

65,535 = not available = default

Position of  Observation, Latitude 15

 

BUFR  005002

Latitude in 1/100 min,  ±90 degrees as per 2’s complement (North = positive, South = negative)

Lat = (Integer value / 100) – 9000 for Integer = 0 – 18,000

32,767 = not available = default

Date and Time of Observation   UTC Date and time of observation.
UTC Month 4 BUFR  004002

1 – 12 (offset = 0)

Month = Integer value

15 = not available = default

UTC Day 6 BUFR  004003

1 – 31 (offset = 0)

Day = (Integer value) for integer = 1-31

63 = not available = default

UTC Hour 5 BUFR  004004

0 – 23 (offset = 0)

Hour = Integer value

31 = not available = default

UTC Minute 3 BUFR  004005

0 – 50 (offset = 0)

Minute = (Integer value * 10) for integer = 0-5

7 = not available = default

Ship’s Course Over Ground
(over the past 10 minutes)
7 BUFR  001012  (VOSClim parameter)

005 – 360 deg. (offset = 0)

COG = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 – 72

0 = stopped

127 = not available = default

Average Speed Over Ground
(over the past 10 minutes)
5 BUFR  001013  (VOSClim parameter)

0 – 14.5 m/s (offset = 0)

SOG = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 29
30 = 15 m/s and more

31 = not available = default

Average heading of the ship
(over the past 10 minutes)
7 BUFR  (tbd) (VOSClim parameter)

005 – 360 deg. (offset = 0)

HDT = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 – 72

127 = not available = default

Pressure reduced to sea level 11 BUFR  010051

900 – 1100 hPa (offset = 900)

Pressure = (Integer value / 10) + 900 for Integer = 0 – 2,000

2,047 = not available = default

3-hour pressure change
(relative value)
10 BUFR  010061

-50 to +50 hPa (offset = -50)

Tend. = (Integer value / 10) – 50 for Integer = 0 – 1,000

1,023 = not available = default

Characteristic of pressure tendency 4 BUFR  010063

WMO BUFR table 010063 for pressure characteristic
over last three hours, Codes 0 – 8

15 = not available = default

True wind direction
(average over 10 minutes)
7 BUFR  011001

005 – 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Direction = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 – 72

0 = calm

127 = not available = default

True wind speed

(average over 10 minutes)

8 BUFR  011002

0 – 127 m/s (offset = 0)

Speed = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 254

255 = not available = default

Relative wind direction
(average over 10 minutes)
7 BUFR  (tbd) (VOSClim parameter)

005 – 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Direction = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 – 72

0 = calm

127 = not available = default

Relative wind speed
(average over 10 minutes)
8 BUFR  (tbd) VOSClim parameter

0 – 127 m/s (offset = 0)

Speed = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 254

255 = not available = default

Maximum wind gust speed 8 BUFR  011041

0 – 127 m/s (offset = 0)

Speed = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 254

255 = not available = default

Maximum wind gust direction 7 BUFR  011043

005 – 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Direction = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 – 72

0 = calm

127 = not available = default

Air temperature (dry bulb) 10 BUFR  012101

223 – 323 K (offset = 223) (i.e. circa -50 to +50 °C)

Temp. = (Integer value / 10) + 223 for Integer = 0 – 1000

1,023 = not available = default

Relative humidity 7 BUFR  013003

0 – 100 % (offset = 0)

Rh = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 – 100

127 = not available = default

Sea surface temperature 9 BUFR  022042

268 to 318 K (offset = 268) (i.e. circa -5 to +45 °C)

Sea Temp. = (Integer value / 10) + 268 for Integer = 0 – 500

511 = not available = default

Horizontal visibility 6 BUFR  020001

0 to 50,000 m (offset = 0)

Visibility = ([(Integer value)**2] * 13.073) for Integer = 0 – 62

63 = not available = default

Present weather 9 BUFR  020003 (WMO BUFR table 020003 for present weather, Codes 0 – 510)

511 = not available = default

Past weather 1 5 BUFR  020004 (WMO BUFR table 020004 for past weather, Codes 0 – 30)

31 = not available = default

Past weather 2 5 BUFR  020005 (WMO BUFR table 020005 for past weather, Codes 0 – 30)

31 = not available = default

Total cloud cover 4 BUFR  020010

0 to 100 % (offset = 0)

Cover = (Integer value * 10) for Integer = 0 – 10

15 = not available = default

Cloud amount (low) 4 BUFR  020011 (WMO BUFR table 020011 for cloud amount, Codes 0 – 14)

15 = not available = default

Cloud type (low) 6 BUFR  020012 (WMO BUFR table 020012 for cloud type, Codes 0 – 62)

63 = not available = default

Cloud type (middle) 6 BUFR  020012

WMO BUFR table 020012 for cloud type, Codes 0-62

63 = not available = default

Cloud type (high) 6 BUFR  020012 (WMO BUFR table 020012 for cloud type, Codes 0 – 62)

63 = not available = default

Height of base of lowest cloud 7 BUFR  020013

0 – 2,500 m (offset = 0)

Height = ([(Integer value)**2] * 0.16) for Integer = 0 – 125

126 = more than 2500 m

127 = not available = default

Period of wind waves 5 BUFR  022012

0 – 30 s (offset = 0)

Period = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 – 30

31 = not available = default

Height of wind waves 6 BUFR  022022

0 – 30 m (offset = 0)

Height = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 60

63 = not available = default

Direction of first swell (from which the swell is coming) 6 BUFR  022003

10 – 360 deg (offset 0).

Direction = (Integer value * 10) for Integer = 1 – 36

0 = calm

63 = not available = default

Period of first swell 5 BUFR  022013

0 – 30 s (offset = 0)

Period = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 – 30

31 = not available = default

Height of first swell 6 BUFR  022023

0 – 30 m (offset = 0)

Height = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 60

63 = not available = default

Direction of second swell (from which the swell is coming) 6 BUFR  022003

10 – 360 deg (offset 0).

Direction = (Integer value * 10) for Integer = 1 – 36

0 = calm

63 = not available = default

Period of second Swell 5 BUFR  022013

0 – 30 s (offset = 0)

Period = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 – 30

31 = not available = default

Height of second swell 6 BUFR  022023

0 – 30 m (offset = 0)

Height = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 – 60

63 = not available = default

Ice deposit (thickness) 7 BUFR  020031

0 – 126 cm (offset = 0)

Thickness = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 – 126

127 = not available = default

Rate of ice accretion 3 BUFR  020032 (WMO BUFR table 020032 for rate of ice accretion, Codes 0 – 6)

7 = not available = default

Cause of ice accretion 3 BUFR  020033 (WMO BUFR table 020033 for cause of ice accretion, Codes 0 – 6)

7 = not available = default

Sea ice concentration 5 BUFR  020034 (WMO BUFR table 020034 for sea ice concentration, Codes 0 – 30)

31 = not available = default

Amount and type of ice 4 BUFR  020035 ( WMO BUFR table 020035 for amount and type of ice, Codes 0 – 14)

15 = not available = default

Ice situation 5 BUFR  020036 (WMO BUFR table 020036 for ice situation,
Codes 0 – 30)

31 = not available = default

Ice development 5 BUFR  020037 (WMO BUFR table 020037 for ice development, Codes 0 – 30)

31 = not available = default

Bearing of ice edge 4 BUFR  020038

045 – 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Bearing = (Integer value * 45) for Integer = 1-8

15 = not available = default

Total 360 Occupies 2 slots