Alternative terms: Vertical (deprecated), Vertical effect (deprecated)
The impairment in the definition of the observed bearings, or the error therein, or both, due to the imperfection of electrical symmetry in a receiving system which is designed to be electrically symmetrical (e.g. a loop antenna direction finder).
Note: Antenna effect is usually limited to the vertical antenna effect in loop antennas.
Please note that this is the term as it stands in the original IALA Dictionary edition (1970-1989)